Scientists reveal footballers' efficiency can be affected by air pollution
A group of German scientists have published a paper which claims the performance of professional footballers may be affected by the level of air pollution.
The paper, produced for the Institute for the Study of Labour in Bonn, examined the form of players in the Bundesliga between 1999 and 2011 and cross referenced it with air quality data from outside the stadiums.
The researchers, Andreas Lichter, Nico Pestel and Eric Sommer will present their findings to the Royal Economic Society's annual conference in Brighton later this month.
pre bonded hairResearchers found that players in their 30s, such as Bayern Munich midfielder Arjen Robben, pictured yesterday theatrically throwing himself to the ground are at greatest risk from the effects of air pollution
Scientists who examined compared air quality data to player performance in German stadiums such as the Allianz Arena in Munich, pictured, said they could measure the impact of pollution on the game
The scientists wanted to know if elite players were affected by air pollution pumped out by traffic and industry
According to the 29-page paper, air pollution costs the EU between £46 billion and £154 billion a year and scientists have already established a link between poor air quality and ill health.
'In this paper, we contribute to this scarce literature by providing casual estimates on the effect of ambient air pollution on individuals' short-run productivity on a national scale for an entire industry, exploiting information on the universe of professional soccer players and teams in the German Bundesliga.'
The team examined 2,956 matches across 32 different stadiums over a 12-year period. The researchers measured a player's total number of passes per match and compared that information to air pollution data from the stadium around kick-off time.
The stadiums were in cities such as Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Frankfurt and Cologne.
'We find that a one per cent increase in the concentration of particulate matter leads to a 00.2 per cent reduction in the number of passes.'
The researchers claim: 'We find that the negative effects of pollution on short-run productivity increase with the individuals' age and are largest for players aged above 30.
'Moreover, midfielders' and defenders' productivity is particularly affected by pollution, players who are moer attached to the game and exert a large number of passes.'
remy hair extensionsAlso, players who have less rest between games are also more affected by pollution.
The team collected data on 1,771 players from 29 different teams. If a stadium did not have the appropriate air quality monitoring data nearby, it was dropped from the survey.
The researchers conclude that their work may have a wider impact on society, especially among workers in low-skilled jobs and suffer from poor air quality.
'Our analysis highlights that economic consequences of environmental pollution are not limited to adverse impacts on population health.
'Even moderate concentrations of particulate matter commonly experienced in developed countries negatively affect the productivity of a selective group of professional soccer players, young and male athletes, to a considerable extent.
'Our findings hence complement previous empirical evidence on air pollution’s negative effects on the productivity of low-skilled agricultural and factory workers in countries with higher levels of pollution.'
She impressed audiences with her gorgeous legs as she flirted with Leonardo DiCaprio in Wolf of Wall Street.
And Margot Robbie’s pins were on display as she strolled around New York City in a short black slip dress paired with a long pink Kimono, on Wednesday.
The 26-year-old showed why she is tipped to be the next Bond girl, showing off her slender physique in the eye-catching number from Spell & The Gypsy Collective.
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Stepping out: Margot Robbie’s trim pins were on display as she wafted around New York City in a short black slip dress paired with a long pink Kimono on Wednesday
The oriental-inspired garment featured broderie anglaise in elaborate flower patterns on the sleeves, shoulders and back, and flowed behind her as she strolled around downtown NYC.
perruques cheveux naturelsLeaving a Tribeca hotel, the Australian actress smiled behind oversized round metallic sunglasses with her blonde locks tied back in a bun.
The Hollywood starlet’s complexion was characteristically flawless all over, but years in the Northern Hemisphere appeared to have erased her Australian tan.
All smiles: Leaving a Tribeca hotel, the Australian actress smiled behind oversized round metallic sunglasses with her blonde locks tied back in a bun
High fashion: The 26-year-old showed why she is tipped to be the next Bond girl, showing off her slender physique in the eye-catching number from Spell & The Gypsy Collective
Good taste: The oriental-inspired garment featured broderie anglaise in elaborate flower patterns on the sleeves, shoulders and back, and flowed behind her as she strolled around downtown NYC
She enhanced her look with natural-look makeup and subtle pink lipstick and carried a small black leather handbag to run her errands.
Margot had been at a fitting for the upcoming NYC premiere of her new film Suicide Squad on Monday night.
Tinseltown is abuzz with rumours that the blonde beauty will appear in the next James Bond film as a Bond girl, following a long line of glamorous actresses.
Flawles: The Hollywood starlet’s complexion was characteristically flawless all over, but years in the Northern Hemisphere appeared to have erased her Australian tan
Going natural: She enhanced her look with natural-look makeup and subtle pink lipstick and carried a small black leather handbag to run her errands
Looking her best: Margot had been at a fitting for the upcoming NYC premiere of her new film Suicide Squad on Monday night
Online polls have revealed the 26-year-old stunner is at the strongest odds to fill the role, sitting at 12/1, while Emily Blunt sits at 16/1, according to Paddy Power.
Others sitting at promising odds to star as the much-desired female character are American model and actress Emily Ratajkowski, who sits at 22/1, with Brit Emma Watson further down the line at 40/1.
The Gold Coast girl found her big break in 2013 opposite Leonardo DiCaprio in Martin Scorsese's The Wolf of Wall Street as the feisty and seductive, Naomi.
Plenty to smile about: Tinseltown is abuzz with rumours that the blonde beauty will appear in the next James Bond film as a Bond girl, following a long line of glamorous actresses
Adoring fans: Margot caused a stir with passersby as she stepped out in NYC
Well made: The beautiful garment had an elaborate rose pattern on its back
perruques cheveuxMore recently, she starred alongside Alexander Skarsgård in The Legend Of Tarzan as Jane.
As well as the blockbuster, Margot has various other projects in the pipeline, including Suicide Squad, in which she plays Harley Quinn.
Other females who have starred as the prestigious Bond girl include talented beauties Halle Berry, Rosamund Pike and Eva Green.
Next big thing: Online polls have revealed the 26-year-old stunner is at the strongest odds to fill the Bond role, sitting at 12/1, while Emily Blunt sits at 16/1, according to Paddy Power .
In demand actress: As well as the blockbuster, Margot has various other projects in the pipeline, including Suicide Squad, in which she plays Harley Quinn
Following in footsteps: Other females who have starred as the prestigious Bond girl include talented beauties Halle Berry, Rosamund Pike and Eva Green
Although the buzz around who will land the role of Bond girl is growing, the film is not expected to be released until at least 2018.
Producer Barbara Broccoli has two other projects firmly underway and is said to be keen to tempt Daniel Craig into reprising his role as the titular character for the fifth time.
Holding her own: Her breakout role was as DiCaprio's feisty wife, Naomi, on Wolf of Wall Street, which her portrayal earned her international acclaim - and showed off her gorgeous legs to the world
Next week will see the conclusion of the 12th season of The Bachelorette, as Joelle 'JoJo' Fletcher gets engaged to either Jordan Rodgers or Robby Hayes.
And according to a new report, there's set to be a dramatic break-up ahead of the romantic proposal.
Us Weekly claims that JoJo comes to the difficult decision of choosing between the two suitors after one of them makes a big mistake with her parents Joseph and Soraya.
Family matters: Joelle 'JoJo' Fletcher apparently picks her fiance in next week's Bachelorette finale after one of the men makes a big mistake with her parents
Who will it be?: Jordan Rodgers (L) and Robby Hayes are the two men left in the competition, and one of them allegedly gets sent packing after failing to ask JoJo's parents for her hand in marriage
lace front wigsThe runner-up gets dumped after failing to ask the 25-year-old's parents' for her hand in marriage, and during the emotional rejection, JoJo confesses that she wanted things to turn out differently.
'JoJo was sobbing,' a source told Us Weekly. 'She told him, “I wanted it to be you.”'
The insider added: 'It was important to JoJo that the guys get her parents’ permission before proposing. JoJo viewed it as disrespectful that he didn’t.'
Us Weekly claims that JoJo's family liked both of the finalists, but thought that the man she eventually picks was better suited to her.
Favourite from the start: Jordan received the First Impression Rose and his relationship with JoJo has gone from strength to strength ever since
Not true: The 27-year-old former quarterback has denied that he cheated on his last girlfriend
'Everyone thought he was husband material,' a source said. 'Later, they told JoJo that they liked the other man too, but they thought the second would be more loyal and a better fit.'
And speaking about the family's meeting with the runner-up, the insider revealed: 'After he left, Soraya said she thought he was a player.'
It seems that JoJo did make the right decision however, as she is apparently still very happily engaged to the winner.
She likes what she sees: JoJo has also fallen in love with former competitive swimmer Robby, 27
cosplay wigsDenying the rumours: Robby has refuted claims that he dumped his girlfriend to appear on the show
Former quarterback Jordan, 27, has been a favourite to win the show from night one, when JoJo presented him with the First Impression Rose.
Show secrets: Us Weekly revealed details of the dramatic finale
And while on Monday's episode of the show he was seen telling the real estate developer that asking her father's permission to propose would be very important to him, a clip for the finale showed JoJo asking if he is ready to get down on one knee.
Both of the finalists have faced rumours about past relationships, with Jordan's ex Brittany Farrar claiming that they broke up because she cheated on him. He denied this to JoJo on the show.
The footballer is estranged from his famous NFL star brother Aaron, whose girlfriend Olivia Munn is close pals with Jordan's ex-girlfriend.
Aaron finally addressed his younger brother speaking about their fraught relationship on the show during an interview with WISN on Tuesday.
'As far as those kinds of things go, I've always found that it's a little inappropriate to talk publicly about some family matters, so I'm not going to speak on those things,' he said. 'But I wish him well in the competition.'
Meanwhile a friend of Robby's ex-girlfriend Hope Higginbotham has claimed that he dumped her in order to go on The Bachelorette, something which he denied during last week's hometown dates.
The Bachelorette finale followed by the After The Final Rose special will air on ABC on Monday.
She made the right choice: JoJo is apparently still happily engaged to the winner, who popped the question in May. The finale airs on ABC on Monday